Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Temperate; 67°N - 35°N
Northwest Pacific: inland Sea of Japan and Wakasa Bay, the Kuril Islands, Sakhalin, Primorskii Krai, east coast of the Korean Peninsula, the Yellow Sea, Gulf of Bo Hai and middle East China Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 23 - 24 cm
Max length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559); common length : 28.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56527); max. published weight: 1.3 kg (Ref. 56527); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref. 56527)
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 5.2 - 18.3, mean 13.3 (based on 36 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00447 - 0.01122), b=3.10 (2.97 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.1 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.2).
Prior r = 0.50, 95% CL = 0.33 - 0.74, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .