Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Lutjaninae
Etymology: Lutjanus: Malay, ikan lutjan, name of a fish.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 80 m (Ref. 9710), usually 20 - 50 m (Ref. 48635). Tropical; 31°N - 38°S, 31°E - 178°W (Ref. 55)
Western Pacific: Indian Ocean distribution provisionally included as records of L. indicus; species needs to be reassessed, preferably utilising genetic analysis.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 29 - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 469); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55)
soft rays: 8. Dorsal profile of head steeply to moderately sloped. Preorbital width about equal to, or slightly less than eye diameter. Preopercular notch and knob poorly developed. Scale rows on back rising obliquely above lateral line. Generally whitish or pink with silvery sheen, frequently brownish on the upper part of the head and back. A black spot which is sometimes faint, is on the lateral line below the anterior portions of the soft dorsal fin. Juveniles from the western Pacific whitish with four black stripes on sides and with a round black spot on upper back (Ref. 469). Body depth 2.6-2.8 in SL (Ref. 90102).
Adults inhabit offshore coral reefs and also inshore rocky and coral reefs (Ref. 30573), at moderate depths, usually over 20 m, and is more common in about 50 m depth (Ref. 48635). Juveniles frequent mangrove estuaries and lower reaches of freshwater streams (Ref. 30573, 48635). They feed on benthic invertebrates and fish (Ref. 5213). Sold in Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253).
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.4 - 29.1, mean 28 (based on 1448 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00864 - 0.02011), b=2.99 (2.87 - 3.11), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm<5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .