Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Characiformes
(Characins) > Characidae
(Characins) > Incertae sedis
Etymology: Probolodus: Greek, pro = in front o + Greek, ballo = to throw + Greek, odous = teeth; sazimai: Named for Ivan Sazima from Museu de Zoologia of UNICAMP (ZUEC-PIS), in appreciation of his contributions to the knowledge of the Neotropical lepidophagous caraciforms.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical
South America: Rio Itapemirim and Rio Doce basins in Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 96884)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Vertebrae: 33 - 36. Probolodus sazimai is distinguished from its two congeners, P. heterostomus, P. oyakawai, by the following characters: six transverse series of scales from insertion of pelvic fin to lateral line (vs. seven/eight); 12 scales along middorsal line between posterior termination of base of dorsal fin and adipose fin (vs. 14-17 and 13-16, respectively); two pairs of uroneurals (vs. absent or just one pair); anterior margin of the hypurals 2 and 3 in contact, not fused (vs. hypurals 2 and 3 distinctly separate); end piece or stay of the dorsal fin leaning against or fused in the last pterygiophore (vs. somewhat removed of the last pterygiophore); fourth basibranchial completely cartilaginous (vs. ossified); dorsal margin of the opercle more elevated than the hyomandibular (vs. opercle and hyomandibular practically aligned); anteromedially projection of the mesethmoid wide, separating completely the premaxillary (vs. short projection, not separating completely the premaxillary). It can be further differentiated from P. heterostomus by having 36-43 perforated scales on the lateral line (vs. 45-56 perforated scales) (Ref. 96884) (Ref. 96884).
Fish scales were found in the stomach contents and between gill rakers of one specimen while leaf fragments, insects and scales were encountered in the oral cavity of three specimens (Ref. 96884).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Santos, O. and R.M.C. Castro, 2014. Taxonomy of Probolodus Eigenmann, 1911 (Characiformes: Characidae) with description of two new species, and comments about the phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of the genus. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 12(2):403-418. (Ref. 96884)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.00604 - 0.02750), b=3.05 (2.87 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .