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Probolodus sazimai Santos & Castro, 2014

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Probolodus sazimai
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drawing shows typical fish in this Family.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Characiformes (Characins) > Characidae (Characins) > Incertae sedis
Etymology: Probolodus: Greek, pro = in front o + Greek, ballo = to throw + Greek, odous = teeth;  sazimai: Named for Ivan Sazima from Museu de Zoologia of UNICAMP (ZUEC-PIS), in appreciation of his contributions to the knowledge of the Neotropical lepidophagous caraciforms.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Freshwater; benthopelagic.   Tropical

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

South America: Rio Itapemirim and Rio Doce basins in Brazil.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 96884)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal soft rays (total): 11; Vertebrae: 33 - 36. Probolodus sazimai is distinguished from its two congeners, P. heterostomus, P. oyakawai, by the following characters: six transverse series of scales from insertion of pelvic fin to lateral line (vs. seven/eight); 12 scales along middorsal line between posterior termination of base of dorsal fin and adipose fin (vs. 14-17 and 13-16, respectively); two pairs of uroneurals (vs. absent or just one pair); anterior margin of the hypurals 2 and 3 in contact, not fused (vs. hypurals 2 and 3 distinctly separate); end piece or stay of the dorsal fin leaning against or fused in the last pterygiophore (vs. somewhat removed of the last pterygiophore); fourth basibranchial completely cartilaginous (vs. ossified); dorsal margin of the opercle more elevated than the hyomandibular (vs. opercle and hyomandibular practically aligned); anteromedially projection of the mesethmoid wide, separating completely the premaxillary (vs. short projection, not separating completely the premaxillary). It can be further differentiated from P. heterostomus by having 36-43 perforated scales on the lateral line (vs. 45-56 perforated scales) (Ref. 96884) (Ref. 96884).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Fish scales were found in the stomach contents and between gill rakers of one specimen while leaf fragments, insects and scales were encountered in the oral cavity of three specimens (Ref. 96884).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Santos, O. and R.M.C. Castro, 2014. Taxonomy of Probolodus Eigenmann, 1911 (Characiformes: Characidae) with description of two new species, and comments about the phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of the genus. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 12(2):403-418. (Ref. 96884)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)


CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.00604 - 0.02750), b=3.05 (2.87 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.1   ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  .
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .