Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gymnotiformes
(Knifefishes) > Hypopomidae
Etymology: pixuna: The specific name comes from the Nheengatu language meaning dark or black.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 3.0 - 4.5. Tropical; 25°C - 27°C (Ref. 102656)
South America: Negro River basin in Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 13.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 102656)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 175 - 242. Procerusternarchus pixuna is distinguished from species of the genera Microsternarchus and Racenisia by the following characters: apomorphic presence of a deep, semi-transparent, large myogenic electric organ located along the body above the anal fin, between the ventral margin of the hypaxial muscle and dorsal margin of the anal fin muscle (pinnalis analis externalis) (vs. electric organ is not as deep and only semi-transparent at the end of the caudal); plesiomorphic condition of a fully-scaled body, with scalation on the dorsoanterior part of the body and along the middorsum, directly behind the extrascapular on the back of the head, on the nape (vs. scales absent from anterior upper to middle back); psiomorphic condition of 10 rows of embedded scales above the lateral line (vs. 3-4 in species of Microsternarchus and 4-5 in species of Racenisia); uniformly darker body; a dark line along the area above the lateral line (vs. back and top of the head also dark and a paler brownish ventral part of the body); and oblique band/blotches on the dorsal part of the body. Other characters useful to distinguish Procerusternarchus pixuna include: slightly projecting and elongated snout, 26.0-34.6% of head (H); head depth at occiput 49.7-68.9% of H; head length 1.2-14.5%; distance from eye to posterior naris, 3.9-10.9% of H; caudal filament length 19.1-27.5% of TL; caudal filament depth 1.1-1.9% of LEA; 175-242 anal-fin rays; 11-14 pectoral-fin rays; 13-15 pleural ribs, and 2-5 modified pleural ribs in the posteroventral wall of the abdominal cavity attached loosely and next to the first haemal spine;14-17 precaudal vertebrae; and 73-76 caudal vertebrae (Ref. 102656).
Inhabits black water streams along the middle and upper reaches of the Negro River Basin where it occurs in fast flowing waters, small falls and river margins with abundant submerged vegetation. During rainy season, has been collected in tangled roots of epiphytic plants that support a diverse fish assemblage. Feeds on insect larvae and parts (Ref. 102656).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cox Fernandes, C., A. Nogueira and J.A. Alves-Gomes, 2014. Procerusternarchus pixuna, a new genus and species of electric knifefish (Gymnotiformes: Hypopomidae, Microsternarchini) from the Negro River, South America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 163():95-118. (Ref. 102656)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .