Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Ammodytidae
Etymology: Protammodytes: Greek, pro = first, in front of + Greek, ammos = sand + Greek, dytes = that likes diving (Ref. 45335); ventrolineatus: Named for the black lines ventrally on the abdomen.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range ? - 240 m (Ref. 97535). Subtropical
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri
Western Indian Ocean: Saya de Malha Bank.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 13.8 cm SL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 16;
Vertebrae: 53. This species is distinguished by the following characters: D 36; A 16; pectoral-fin rays 17; pelvic fin rays 5; lateral-line scales 86; no gap in subocular sensory canal; gill rakers 3 + 21; vertebrae 53; body depth at dorsal-fin origin 10.9 in SL: head length 3.75 in SL; eye large, 4.15 in HL; large mouth slightly oblique, the upper-jaw length 3.05 in HL; lower jaw projecting, the tip narrowly rounded; teeth in jaws absent; pelvic fins present, 3.75 in HL; colour when fresh is bluish gray dorsally on body to one scale row below bluish white lateral line, the scale edges are black, with a broad bluish white zone on side of body, ending ventrally in an indistinct stripe of brown blotches beginning at base of pectoral fin, becoming blackish posteriorly, and ending ventrally on caudal peduncle and base of caudal fin, the body below stripe is light gray, the snout reddish gray, the iris is pale yellowish, dorsal fin whitish, caudal fin reddish on basal half, except for a rectangular white bar at base, whitish distally; colour when preserved: body yellowish brown dorsally, the scales narrowly rimmed in black; a broad light purplish gray zone on side of body, abruptly pale tan ventrally below level of lower edge of pectoral-fin base, a series of 22 oblique black lines on each side of abdomen, and 3 longitudinal black lines midventrally; fins pale yellowish (Ref. 97535).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E. and H. Ida, 2014. Three new species of sand lances (Perciformes: Ammodytidae) from the southwest Indian Ocean. J. Ocean Sci. Found. 12:1-11. (Ref. 97535)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
CountriesFAO areasEcosystemsOccurrencesIntroductionsStocksEcologyDietFood itemsFood consumptionRation
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00331 (0.00148 - 0.00739), b=3.09 (2.90 - 3.28), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.1 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .