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Pogonophryne tronio Shandikov, Eakin & Usachev, 2013

Turquoise plunderfish
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Image of Pogonophryne tronio (Turquoise plunderfish)
Pogonophryne tronio
Male picture by Shandikov, G.A.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Artedidraconidae (Barbled plunderfishes)
Etymology: Pogonophryne: Greek, pogon = beard + Greek, phrynos = toad (Ref. 45335);  tronio: Named for the Spanish longliner Tronio.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 900 - 1225 m (Ref. 92304).   Polar; 71°S - 73°S, 177°E - 178°W (Ref. 92304)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Southern Ocean, East Antarctica: Ross Sea.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 23.4 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 92304); 26.0 cm SL (female)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

This species is distinguished by the following characters: first dorsal fin with 2 flexible spines; second dorsal fin with 27-28 rays; anal fin with 17-18 rays; pectoral fins with 19-20 rays; gill rakers: anterior 9-12, posterior 7-9, total 17-21; upper lateral line with 25-27 pores (tubular scales); middle lateral line with 12-16 pores (tubular scales); cephalic lateral line pores: preoperculo-mandibular canal 9; infraorbital canal 7; supraorbital 4, with 2 nasal and 2 interorbital pores; coronal commissure 1 central pore; temporal 6; supratemporal 2, disrupted at middle, with 1 left and 1 right pores; vertebrae: 16 + 22 = 38. A dorsally-spotted and short-barbeled species of Pogonophryne distinguished from others in the 'P. mentella' group by a combination of: a short (about 10-12% SL), fine and somewhat tapering mental barbel, flattened and pointed just the tip, dorsally bi-colored: dark-spotted or uniformly dark-colored stem with very small light tip of barbel ('terminal expansion'), reaching slightly beyond anterior edge of orbit in backward extended mode over the snout with mouth closed; distal part of mental barbel covered by densely distributed, closely adjacent to stem dark finger-like processes; almost undetectable by eye flat and light, short terminal expansion (about 18-29% of barbel length) composed of independent leaf-like processes or/and low longitudinal folds bearing prominent serrated leaf-like processes; interorbital distance wide (about 7% SL); lower jaw slightly protruding with not visible teeth on symphysis when mouth closed; teeth on both jaws sharp and conical, slightly retrorse, somewhat enlarged on tips of jaws in posterior rows: 2-3 irregular rows on symphysis of lower jaw and 3 rows anteriorly on upper jaw; second dorsal fin low (up to 18% SL), without anterior elevated lobe in adult males, with light-greenish ground coloration, variegated by inconspicuous oblique stripes and blotches generally distributed on rays; anal and both sides of pelvic fins generally light, without contrast bicolor pigmentation: creamy-whitish distally (partly with light-pinkish tinge) and somewhat variegated by inconspicuous longitudinal brownish stripes and blotches basally; pectoral fins with about 10-11 dark vertical stripes alternating by turquoise-greenish stripes; narrow distal margin of fins uniformly light-greenish; caudal fin with light-greenish ground coloration and with about 6-7 dark vertical stripes, not extending to narrow uniformly light-greenish distal margin of fin; dorsal surface of head and area anterior to first dorsal fin covered by large irregular dark-brown markings and spots; breast and belly dark-brown and blackish, both lacking in evident dark sharp spots or markings; mandibular oral valve dark-pigmented anteriorly, maxillar oral valve lighter; oral cavity generally light (Ref. 92304).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

A deep-water species collected by bottom long-line at depths (726?)900-1,225(1,568?) m by hooks baited with large pieces (about 4x3x2 cm) of giant Peruvian squid, Dosidicus gigas. Predatory species, which also opportunistically feeds as necrophage. Spawning probably take place in November - December. In post-spawning female (paratype, 31.5 cm TL, captured at 12 January 2010) the length, width and depth of ovary attain about 35-38, 11-12 and 6-7 mm correspondently. The GSI reaches about 0.8. State of gonad maturity, affirmed by presence of ovarian cavity and empty follicles, provide the evidence of post-spawning SGM VI-III and recently finished spawning. The diameter of 10 measured oocytes of trophoplasmatic growth of younger generation varied from 0.24 to 0.49 mm (average 0.37 mm, SD=0.08). Paired well developed testes of male (holotype, 29 cm TL, captured at 11 January 2010) reach about 45-49 mm in length, 12-14 mm in width and 3-4 mm in depth; GSI about 0.5; SGM apparently corresponds to early post-spawning stage VI or VI-II. In the smaller male (28 cm TL, captured at 20 January 2010) visual appearance of undeveloped testes (length 35, width 2.5, depth 1 mm) and low GSI (0.06), apparently corresponding to SGM II-III, evidence on subadult male, which could spawn for the first time the next season. Liver large, filling about 1/2-2/3 of the length of the abdominal cavity, creamy in coloration; hepatosomatic index reaches 2.4-6.4. A nematode larva of the genus Pseudoterranova sp. (family. Anisakidae) was found on the surface of the liver (Ref. 92304).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Shandikov, G.A., R.R. Eakin and S. Usachev, 2013. Pogonophryne tronio, a new species of Antarctic short-barbeled plunderfish (Perciformes: Notothenioidei: Artedidraconidae) from the deep Ross Sea with new data on Pogonophryne brevibarbata. Polar Biol. 36(2):273-289. (Ref. 92304)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


Special reports

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  .
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .