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Porotergus duende de, Santana & Crampton, 2010

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Porotergus duende
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drawing shows typical fish in this Family.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gymnotiformes (Knifefishes) > Apteronotidae (Ghost knifefishes)
Etymology: Porotergus: Greek, poros = porous + Latin, tergum = back, the upper plate or segment in an animal (Ref. 45335);  duende: The specific epithet, duende, is the Portuguese for elf or imp, referring to the diminutive size of P. duende. A noun in apposition. Gender masculine.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Freshwater; demersal; pH range: 6.9 - 7.3.   Tropical; 27°C - 32°C (Ref. 83661)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Known from the main channel of the Amazon River in the western portions of the Amazon basin (Rio Negro and Rio Solimões in Brazil, Rio Ucayali in Peru.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 83661); 10.4 cm TL (female)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Anal soft rays: 124 - 142. This species is distinguished from its congeners by the following characted: presence of a light brown body pigmentation (vs. pale straw pigmentation in P. gimbeli, and dark brown in P. gymnotus); one row of conical teeth on the dentary (vs. two); edentulous premaxilla (vs. presence of teeth); ossified second basibranchial (vs. unossified in P. gimbeli, condition unknown in P. gymnotus). It further differs from P. gimbeli by the absence of a distinct swelling on the chin (vs. presence of this structure), the total anal-fin rays (124-142 vs. 171–198), and the prepectoral-fin distance (14.1-17.0% of LEA vs. 10.3-13.5); from P. gymnotus by the distance from the posterior naris to the eye (1.7-3.8% of HL vs. 8.2-11.9), mouth length (12.4-27.4% of HL vs. 28.1-38.7), pectoral-fin length (72.7-89.0% of HL vs. 60.4-70.7) (Ref. 83661).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

This species is known mainly from the main channels of large whitewater rivers such as the Rio Solimões(Amazon) and Río Ucayali. In the Tefé region, it was encountered only during the rising water period in January and February, and captured in waters of 2–4 m depth on beaches of alluvial silt and fine sand. Based on examined stomachs of four specimens, this species feeds exclusively on small, autochthonous, benthic insect larvae (of micro-caddis fly, biting midge and beetle). Most specimens had loose sand grains in the stomach (larger than the grains of sand in the caddis fly jackets), suggesting foraging on sandy substrates; one stomach contained many endoparasitic nematodes. All four specimens captured in the Tefé region had maturing, but not fully mature, gonads, suggesting that spawning occur during the rising water period, typical of riverine apteronotids (Ref. 83661).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Albert, James S. | Collaborators

de Santana, C. D. and G. R. Crampton, 2010. A review of the South American electric fish genus Porotergus (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae) with the description of a new species. Copeia 2010(1):165-175. (Ref. 83661)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)


CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00339 (0.00134 - 0.00855), b=3.09 (2.87 - 3.31), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  .
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .