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Prototroctes maraena Günther, 1864

Australian grayling
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Image of Prototroctes maraena (Australian grayling)
Prototroctes maraena
Juvenile picture by McDowall, R.M.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Osmeriformes (Smelts) > Retropinnidae (New Zealand smelts) > Prototroctinae
Etymology: Prototroctes: Greek, pro = first, in front of + Greek, troktos, -e, -on = edible (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Günther.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 46888).   Temperate; 10°C - 25°C (Ref. 2060); 34°S - 45°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Oceania: coastal drainages of southeastern Australia from the Grose River near Sydney southward and westward to the eastern part of South Australia, including Tasmania and King Island in Bass Strait.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5259); common length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5259); max. reported age: 6 years (Ref. 5259)

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults inhabit creeks and rivers, usually in cool, clear waters over gravel bottoms in sections alternating between pools and rapids. Usually found in clear, moderate to fast-flowing water in the upper reaches of rivers (sometimes to altitudes above 1000 meters). Often forming aggregations below barriers to upstream movement. Timid species that forms fast-moving shoals (Ref. 44894). Often form large schools especially prior to spawning. Feed on small crustaceans, insects and their larvae and algae. The intestinal tract is long, s specialization to assist in the breakdown of ingested plant material (Ref. 44894). Spawn: Feb.-May; 25,000-68,000 eggs which sink to bottom downstream of spawning site. Hatching: 10-20 days; larvae, 6-7 mm TL, swept downstream to estuaries and the sea, return to freshwater after 6 months.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McDowall, Robert M. | Collaborators

Allen, G.R., 1989. Freshwater fishes of Australia. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. (Ref. 5259)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)

  Near Threatened (NT) ; Date assessed: 09 March 2007

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

Special reports

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7656   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00372 (0.00151 - 0.00916), b=3.14 (2.92 - 3.36), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  2.8   ±0.34 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.45; tmax=6; Fec=25,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.