Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Paralichthyidae
Etymology: Paralichthys: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, ichthys = fish + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335). More on author: Jordan.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 50 - 190 m (Ref. 36453), usually 70 - 100 m (Ref. 43588). Subtropical; 34°S - 47°S
Southwest Atlantic: Brazil to Argentina.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 32.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 43588); 38.0 cm TL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 65 - 72;
Vertebrae: 38 - 39. Caudal fin double truncate (Ref. 27363). Almost wholly ambicolorate, the blind side is darkly pigmented except for the anterior portion of the body which has dark pigments only on the opercle, subopercle, a small region adjacent and dorsal to the head, and the distal half of the pectoral fin; two lighter pigmented areas were present on the unpigmented dorsal region of the head. The blind side had one of the 3 typical ocelli (upper one) in the same position with that of the ocular side (Ref. 34245).
Prefers hard or sandy substrates, rarely on mud (Ref. 43588). Feeds on fishes and cephalopods (Ref. 36453).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Nakamura, I., T. Inada, M. Takeda and H. Hatanaka, 1986. Important fishes trawled off Patagonia. Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research Center, Tokyo. 369 p. (Ref. 27363)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.6 - 10.1, mean 7.9 (based on 82 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00293 - 0.00939), b=3.17 (3.02 - 3.32), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.53 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .