Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Monacanthidae
Etymology: Paramonacanthus: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, monos = one + Greek, akantha ) thorn (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 15 - 50 m (Ref. 90102). Temperate; 25°N - 11°S, 95°E - 141°E
Western Pacific: South China Sea and Java Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48637)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 31 - 34;
Vertebrae: 19. Body width 2.1-2.5 in head length; body depth 1.9-2.5 in SL; head length 2.8-3.1 in SL; snout length 4.1-4.5 in SL; eye diameter 2.7-3.9 in head length. Spinules forming prominent longitudinal series on side of body (Ref. 33065).
Inhabits muddy substrates in sheltered coastal bays (Ref. 48637). Also found in sand bottoms of trawling grounds in 15-50 m (Ref. 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hutchins, J.B., 1997. Review of the monacanthid fish genus Paramonacanthus, with descriptions of three new species. Rec. West. Aust. Mus. Suppl. No. 54:1-57. (Ref. 33065)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.5 - 29.2, mean 28.8 (based on 1169 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02138 (0.01034 - 0.04421), b=2.91 (2.74 - 3.08), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .