Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Paralichthyidae
Etymology: Paralichthys: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, ichthys = fish + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335). More on author: Jordan.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 6 - 200 m (Ref. 36453), usually 70 - 100 m (Ref. 43588). Subtropical; - 43°S
Southeast Pacific: Chile (Ref. 9068). Southwest Atlantic: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to Patagonia, Argentina (Ref. 36453).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 33.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 48.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 43588); 62.0 cm TL (female); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6077)
Ranges from the coast to 200 m depth (Ref. 36453). Frequently captured over sandy bottoms (Ref. 42588). Feeds mainly on fishes, also shrimps (Ref. 36453).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Figueiredo, J.L. and N.A. Menezes, 2000. Manual de peixes marinhos do sudeste do Brasil. VI.Teleostei (5). Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. Brazil. 116 p. (Ref. 36453)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.8 - 19.9, mean 10.1 (based on 74 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00589 (0.00497 - 0.00698), b=3.13 (3.08 - 3.18), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.66 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .