Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 33 - 50 m (Ref. 9840). Tropical; 26°N - 32°S
Indo-Pacific: South Africa to New Guinea; north to the Philippines.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 70.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 130 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 11228); 110.8 cm WD (female)
Found inshore, on sandy substrates (Ref. 9840, 75154) to depths of 50m (Ref.58048). Inhabits shallow coastal waters (Ref. 45255). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Common catch of the demersal tangle net, bottom trawl and, occasionally, longline fisheries. Utilized for its meat, skin (very high value) and cartilage (Ref.58048). Max. Length of female given in Ref. 74367.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.9 - 28.6, mean 27.8 (based on 168 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (78 of 100) .