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Plectropomus areolatus (Rüppell, 1830)

Squaretail coralgrouper
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Plectropomus areolatus
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Plectropomus: Greek,plektron = anything to strike with, spur + Greek, poma = cover, operculum (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Rüppell.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋 礁区鱼类; 深度上下限 1 - 20 m (Ref. 9710).   熱帶; 31°N - 25°S, 32°E - 169°W (Ref. 5222)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to the Phoenix Islands and Samoa, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Australia.
印度-太平洋: 紅海到鳳凰島與美屬薩摩亞, 北至琉球群島, 南至澳洲。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 36.6, range 30 - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 90102)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 7 - 8; 背的软条 (总数): 10-12; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body elongate and robust, depth 2.9-3.9 in SL; preopercle broadly rounded, with 3 large, ventrally-directed spines along lower half; opercle with 3 flat spines, the upper and lower spines covered by skin; nostrils subequal, set in a shallow groove running forward from eye; large canine teeth at front of jaws; 1-4 large canines on side of lower jaw; gill rakers of first gill arch 0-2 + 2-7; caudal fin truncate to slightly emarginate, the caudal concavity more than 13 times in HL; pectoral-fin rays 15-16, 2.0-2.3 in HL; lateral-line scales 83-97. Colour whitish to pale grey color, with numerous round to oval dark-edged blue spots (the largest about equal to pupil); most spots within a spot diameter of adjacent spots; head, body, and median fins frequently with 4-5 dark blotches forming saddles on back (greenish grey); pelvic fins with dark brown to blackish membranes; rear margin of caudal fin with a white edge and often with a blackish submarginal band (Ref. 39231, 89707, 90102).
有截形的尾部有一个狭窄的白色后缘 , 与相当大的拥挤黑色边的圆形蓝色的斑点.(参考文献 37816)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults inhabit lagoon and seaward reefs, in areas with rich coral growth. Most frequently encountered in channels along the reef front (Ref. 9710, 48635). Often a shy fish (Ref. 48635). Feed exclusively on fishes (Ref. 37816). Misidentified as P. leopardus in Ref. 2928 (Johannes, pers. comm.). This study reports of a declining stock in Palau due to fishing. Before actual spawning around full moon, the species aggregates along channels and are responsive to baited hooks, making them vulnerable to fishermen; upward movements of some to take baited hooks presumably mistaken for courtship or spawning behavior. Large individuals may be ciguatoxic in certain areas (Ref. 37816). In the Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Of interest to artisanal fisheries and caught with hook-and-line (Ref. 39231).

栖息于泻湖与临海礁石, 有丰饶的珊瑚成长的地方。 最常在峡道见到沿着礁前面.(参考文献 9710,48635) 时常一个害羞的鱼.(参考文献 48635) 专门捕食鱼。 (参考文献 37816) 参考文献 2928 被误鉴成 P. leopardus(葡萄牙金币, pers. comm.)。 在帛琉的族群减少的报告由于钓鱼的这一个研究。 以前实际产卵在月圆前后期间, 此鱼种沿着峡道聚集而且对诱饵有反应, 使他们易受伤害对渔夫; 一些的向上运动带诱饵可能被误认为求偶期或产卵行为。 在特定的区域中的大个体可能具有热带海鱼毒.(参考文献 37816) 在香港活鱼贩售。 (参考文献 27253)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

印度-太平洋: 紅海到鳳凰島與美屬薩摩亞, 北至琉球群島, 南至澳洲。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 119314)

  次级保育类动物, 见 IUCN 红皮书 (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 17 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  有雪卡鱼毒中毒的报导 (Ref. 4690)





人类利用

渔业: 低经济
FAO(渔业: 产生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 26.4 - 29.3, mean 28.5 (based on 1868 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5078   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00547 - 0.02300), b=3.04 (2.88 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.80 se; Based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=2.5; Tmax=14;).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.