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Pholis gunnellus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Rock gunnel
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Pholis gunnellus
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Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (Straalvinnigen) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Pholidae (Gunnels)
Etymology: Pholis: Greek, pholis, -idos = scale (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; marien; brakwater demersaal; standvastig; diepteverspreiding 0 - 100 m (Ref. 48978), usually 0 - 30 m (Ref. 35388).   Polar; 72°N - 43°N, 76°W - 45°E

Verspreiding Landen | FAO regio's | Ecosystems | Voorkomen | Point map | Introducties | Faunafri

North Atlantic: Kanin Peninsula southward to La Rochelle (including White Sea, North Sea and Baltic), also Iceland, but not eastern Greenland, Spitzbergen or Novaya Zemlya. Western Atlantic: Labrador, Canada to Delaware Bay, USA (Ref. 7251).

Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm SL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 4693); Maximaal vermelde leeftijd: 5 jaren (Ref. 72462)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Ribbon - shaped body with 9 - 13 eye spots along the base of the dorsal fin (Ref. 35388).

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Occurs in shallow waters (seashore, tide pools), but descends (especially in winter) to 100 m or more. May remain out of water under rocks or seaweeds (Ref. 31184). Feeds on small crustaceans, polychaetes, mollusks and fish eggs. The eggs are laid on the sea bed in a large clump, which is closely guarded until hatched (Ref. 9900). Breathes air when out of water (Ref. 31184). Spawning occur in November - January . Female lays 80-200 eggs in a large ball under a stone or in an empty bivalve shell (Ref. 35388).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Male and female coil around the egg ball (Ref. 58332).

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator | Medewerkers

Makushok, V.M., 1986. Pholididae. p. 1124-1125. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 3. (Ref. 4693)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 119314)


CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaarlijk voor mensen

  Harmless





Gebruik door de mens

Visserij: van geen belang; Aquarium: Commercieel
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Internet-bronnen

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Bekijk FishWatcher gegevens | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genoom, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Nationale databanken | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Publieke aquaria | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(ga naar, zoek) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 4.3 - 11.9, mean 9.5 (based on 692 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00195 (0.00086 - 0.00441), b=3.17 (2.97 - 3.37), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.46 se; Based on food items.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 69278):  Gemiddeld, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 1,4-4,4 jaar (tm=1-3; K=0.18-0.29; tmax=12).
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .