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Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758)

Beluga
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Huso huso   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Huso huso (Beluga)
Huso huso
Picture by Hartl, A.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Acipenseriformes (Sturgeons and paddlefishes) 鱘形目 (Sturgeons and paddlefishes) > Acipenseridae (Sturgeons) 鱘科 (Sturgeons) > Acipenserinae
Etymology: Huso: Latin, huso = swine (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 70 - 180 m.   溫帶; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 2059); 57°N - 35°N, 17°E - 60°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Eurasia: Caspian, Black, Azov and Adriatic Sea basins.

Extirpated from Adriatic Sea.
黑海及裡海的流域; 稀有的在亞得里亞海海洋中。 人工地繁殖; 被認為是易受傷害的到瀕臨絕種的.(參考文獻 6866) 伯恩公約的附錄 3(受保育的動物群). 國際間的買賣限制 ( 引用2, 自從 1.4.98 以後; 公分 附錄 2).

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?, range 200 - ? cm
Max length : 800 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 59043); common length : 215 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 3397); 最大體重: 3.2 t (Ref. 59043); 最大年齡: 118 年 (Ref. 47437)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 62-73; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 28 - 41. Snout moderate and pointed, turning slightly upward. Lower lip not continuous, interrupted at center. Barbels oval or flat, leaf-like posteriorly, reaching almost to mouth. Five rows of scutes, dorsal 11-14 (first one smallest), lateral 41-52 on each side, ventral 9-11 on each side. Back ash-grey or greenish, flanks lighter, belly white.
吻中等而尖的, 略微朝上。 下唇不是連續, 在中心中斷。 觸鬚橢圓形或平的, 葉狀的在後部地, 幾乎到嘴。 五個列的鱗甲, 背部的 11-14(最先的一個小的), 在兩邊上的側部 41-52, 在兩邊上的腹面 9-11。 背面灰色或呈綠色的﹐側面顏色較淡﹐和腹部白色的。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Pelagic at the sea, following its prey. Undertakes upriver migration to spawn. Juveniles occur in shallow riverine habitats during their first summer. Spawns in the main course of large and deep rivers with strong current and on stone or gravel bottom (Ref. 59043). Feeds mostly on sea fishes (Black Sea whiting, anchovies, flatfishes, gobies, fry of bottom-living fishes), also crustaceans, mollusks, mysids and amphipods. Fisheries are based almost entirely on the value of the caviar, but meat also is sold fresh, smoked and frozen; eaten broiled, boiled, fried and baked (Ref. 9988). Bester, a hybrid of female Huso huso and male sterlet Acipenser ruthenus, has been successfully cultivated for its high quality eggs (Ref. 9988). The largest sturgeon and largest European freshwater fish. In Guinness Book of Records as the most expensive fish (Ref. 6472). Threatened due to overfishing for meat at the sea and for caviar in estuaries. These threats will soon cause global extinction of the natural populations. Survival can only depend on stocking (Ref. 59043).

最大的鱘魚與大的歐洲淡水魚。 在金氏世界記錄如最貴的魚.(參考文獻 6472) 6 公尺長度的標本曾經報告在以前。 (參考文獻 6866) 大部份捕食海洋魚 (黑海白魚,鯷魚,比目魚,鰕虎魚, 底棲魚的魚苗), 也捕食甲殼類動物, 軟體動物,糠蝦與片腳類動物。 漁場在魚子醬的價值上被幾乎完全地建立,但是肉也被賣生鮮、煙燻與冷凍; 吃火烤了, 煮沸了, 油炸了而且燒烤了.(參考文獻 9988) 更最好地, 一雌性 Huso huso 與雄魚小體鱘 小體鱘〔Acipenser ruthenus〕 雜交, 已經成功地為它的高品質卵培養.(參考文獻 9988)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Enters rivers from March, usually April and May (also in autumn). Survives largely by artificial propagation. About 360,000-7,700,000 eggs per female. Females carry eggs only once every five to seven years (Ref. 9988).黑海及裡海的流域; 稀有的在亞得里亞海海洋中。 人工地繁殖; 被認為是易受傷害的到瀕臨絕種的.(參考文獻 6866) 伯恩公約的附錄 3(受保育的動物群). 國際間的買賣限制 ( 引用2, 自從 1.4.98 以後; 公分 附錄 2).

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  極危 (CR) (A2bcd); Date assessed: 24 October 2009

CITES (Ref. 115941)


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人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 商業性
FAO(養殖: 產生; 漁業: 產生, 魚種描繪; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.7 - 15.6, mean 9.1 (based on 19 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00437 (0.00262 - 0.00727), b=3.11 (2.97 - 3.25), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增時間超過14 年 (K=0.1; tm=13-22; tmax=118; Fec=360,000).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (89 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.