Pholis gunnellus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Rock gunnel
photo by Noren, M.

Family:  Pholidae (Gunnels)
Max. size:  25 cm SL (male/unsexed); max. reported age: 5 years
Environment:  demersal; depth range 0 - 100 m, non-migratory
Distribution:  North Atlantic: Kanin Peninsula southward to La Rochelle (including White Sea, North Sea and Baltic), also Iceland, but not eastern Greenland, Spitzbergen or Novaya Zemlya. Western Atlantic: Labrador, Canada to Delaware Bay, USA (Ref. 7251).
Diagnosis:  Ribbon - shaped body with 9 - 13 eye spots along the base of the dorsal fin (Ref. 35388).
Biology:  Occurs in shallow waters (seashore, tide pools), but descends (especially in winter) to 100 m or more. May remain out of water under rocks or seaweeds (Ref. 31184). Feeds on small crustaceans, polychaetes, mollusks and fish eggs. The eggs are laid on the sea bed in a large clump, which is closely guarded until hatched (Ref. 9900). Breathes air when out of water (Ref. 31184). Spawning occur in November - January . Female lays 80-200 eggs in a large ball under a stone or in an empty bivalve shell (Ref. 35388).
IUCN Red List Status: Not Evaluated (N.E.) Ref. (119314)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:   

Entered by: Froese, Rainer - 01.05.91
Modified by: Reyes, Rodolfo B. - 24.07.15
Checked by: Froese, Rainer - 11.09.97

Source and more info: For personal, classroom, and other internal use only. Not for publication.

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