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Batrachoides surinamensis  (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

Pacuma toadfish
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Batrachoides surinamensis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Batrachoides surinamensis (Pacuma toadfish)
Batrachoides surinamensis
Picture by Isaac, V.J.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Batrachoidiformes (Toadfishes) > Batrachoididae (Toadfishes) > Batrachoidinae
Etymology: Batrachoides: Greek, batrachos = frog + Greek, oides = similar (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 1 - 36 m (Ref. 13608).   Tropical, preferred ?; 16°N - 14°S, 87°W - 34°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Central Atlantic: Honduras to Salvador (Bahia) in Brazil.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 20.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 57.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3273); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3273); max. published weight: 2.3 kg (Ref. 5217)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 3; Dorsal soft rays (total): 28-30; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 25 - 27. Supraorbital and interorbital region smooth, without any filament; scaled area on head extending to middle of eye and opercle spine; 9 discrete pores on inner face of pectoral fin; body brown, with black spots and saddle-shaped blotches (Ref. 13608).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Mainly in brackish water (Ref. 5217). Found on sandy-muddy bottoms in shallow warm water. Not so active, lingers over the substrate disguised. Feeds on small gastropod mollusks, crustaceans like crabs (Calappidae, Portunidae, Xanthidae, etc.), shrimps (Penaeidae, Palaemonidae, Alphaeidae, etc.) and fishes. Females are mature at around 20 cm length, males at 25 cm. Spawns 400 to 500 eggs, with a size of 4 to 5 mm (Ref. 35237). Marketed fresh.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Collette, Bruce B. | Collaborators

Collette, B.B., 1978. Batrachoididae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. West Atlantic (Fishing Area 31), Volume 1. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3273)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

Special reports

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5020   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00464 - 0.01185), b=3.16 (3.02 - 3.30), based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.62 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (60 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.