Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes
(Cods) > Bregmacerotidae
Etymology: Bregmaceros: Greek, bregma = front of the head + Greek, keras, -atos = horn (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 2000 m (Ref. 26165). Subtropical, preferred 28°C (Ref. 107945); 40°N - 30°S
Eastern Indian Ocean: Probably restricted to the area from West India to eastern Thailand. Reports from outside this area are most likely misidentifications (A.S. Harold, pers. comm., 18/08/98). However, larval occurrence is wide in the tropics (Ref. 9902, 46075).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4496); common length : 7.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2872)
soft rays: 58 - 69;
Vertebrae: 52 - 58. Body is elongate, brownish and with speckling above and silvery below. The cheek and lower head also silver. Single occipital ray long and delicate, extending to near the middle of the second dorsal fin (Ref. 46075). Pelvic fins are jugular.
If taxonomy is correct, both onshore in brackish water and oceanic. According to larval survey, occurrence in the tropics is wide (Ref. 9902, 45075). Feed on planktonic crustaceans. Also caught with bagnets (Ref. 2872).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cohen, D.M., 1990. Bregmacerotidae. p. 524-525. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4496)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00156 - 0.00972), b=3.12 (2.90 - 3.34), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.42 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Assuming tm=1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .