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Epinephelus stictus  Randall & Allen, 1987

Black-dotted grouper
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Epinephelus stictus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus stictus (Black-dotted grouper)
Epinephelus stictus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Randall.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 60 - 142 m (Ref. 5222).   Tropical, preferred ?; 31°N - 17°S, 106°E - 126°E (Ref. 5222)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Indian Ocean and Western Pacific: known only from southern Japan, Hong Kong, Hainan Islands of China, Viet Nam, South China Sea, Java, and northwest Australia. Record from Taiwan (Ref. 6864) is dubious.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15-16; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Preopercle with 1 - 4 distinctly enlarged serrae at its angle; upper edge of the operculum straight; nostrils subequal. Pectoral fins not fleshy. Pyloric caeca 12. Body and head yellowish brown dorsally, whitish ventrally, with numerous small dark brown to black dots on the upper sides, and 5 faint oblique bars, which may disappear in preservative; the chest and ventral parts of the head pale reddish orange. The fins are pale, with the rays darker than the membrane; the soft dorsal and caudal fins with narrow dark brown margin.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found on the continental shelf (Ref. 75154), over mud and sand substrata (Ref. 89707). Caught by trawling at depths ranging from 37 to 142 m. The small size and poor edible quality probably accounts for its low value in the markets.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00550 - 0.02289), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.