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Epinephelus socialis  (Günther, 1873)

Surge grouper
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Epinephelus socialis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus socialis (Surge grouper)
Epinephelus socialis
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 10 m (Ref. 89707), usually 0 - 3 m (Ref. 9710).   Tropical; 30°N - 29°S, 139°E - 123°W (Ref. 5222)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Pacific Ocean: islands of Oceania; Ogasawara Islands, Marcus Islands, Mariana Islands, Marshall Islands, Phoenix Islands, American Samoa, Cook Islands, Line Islands, Society Islands, Rapa, Tuamoto Islands, and the Pitcairn Group. Unknown in Hawaii, the Marquesas, Caroline Islands, nor in any Melanesian islands.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 52.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14-16; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Preopercle rounded, finely serrate; upper edge of the operculum sinuous; nostril subequal; maxilla reaches past vertical at rear edge of the eye. Pectoral fins fleshy. Head and body whitish, with small close-set blackish-brown spots, those on the rear part of the body coalesced to form irregular longitudinal bands. Four dark blotches usually at the base of the dorsal fin and a fifth forming a dark saddle blotch on the peduncle. Fins with small white spots and whitish margins, usually with a black submarginal band; body depth contained 2.9-3.4 times in SL; head length 2.4-2.6 times in SL (Ref. 89707).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

This shallow-water species is more common on atolls than high islands, and usually found in exposed outer-reef areas. Not dependent on coral cover (Ref. 89707). Juveniles and occasionally adults are collected from tide pools. Feeds on crustaceans (mainly grapsid crabs), octopi, and fishes.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 25.4 - 29.4, mean 28.1 (based on 712 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00563 - 0.02452), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.64 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.