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Epinephelus miliaris  (Valenciennes, 1830)

Netfin grouper
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Epinephelus miliaris   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Epinephelus miliaris
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 200 m (Ref. 9710).   Tropical; 29°N - 24°S, 39°E - 175°W (Ref. 5222)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: insular species ranging from East Africa (excluding the Red Sea and Persian Gulf) to the Gilbert Islands and Samoa, north to the Ryukyu Islands.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 53.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16-17; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Have a large spots on the soft-rayed portions of the fins and a fine pattern of small close-set spots on the body and spinous portions of the fins (Ref. 37816); further characterized by having ctenoid scales on body except cycloid anteriorly above lateral line, thorax and abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.8-3.2 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins, 1.7-2.1 in head length (Ref. 90102); head length 2.4-2.6 times in SL; convex interorbital, slightly concave dorsal head profile at eyes; subangular preopercle, shallow notch just above the angle and the serrae at the angle enlarged in juveniles; straight upper edge of operculum; diameter of posterior nostrils about twice that of anterior nostril; maxilla reaches vertical at rear edge of eye; 2-4 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw; pyloric caeca 30 (Ref. 89707).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in a variety of habitats. Solitary (Ref 90102). Juveniles (8-21 cm SL) have been taken from mud bottoms, seagrass beds, mangrove swamps, and from coral reefs in depths of 1 to 16 m; adults in coral reefs at depths of 18 to 180 m (Ref. 89707). Stomach contents reported to include juvenile clappid crab, a stomatopod, and a gastropod (Ref. 6448).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 21.8 - 28.2, mean 26.2 (based on 240 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.62 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.