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Epinephelus longispinis  (Kner, 1864)

Longspine grouper
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Epinephelus longispinis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus longispinis (Longspine grouper)
Epinephelus longispinis
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 70 m (Ref. 4319).   Tropical; 17°N - 33°S, 29°E - 137°E (Ref. 5222)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Kenya to South Africa (32°S) and east to the Watubela Group of the eastern Banda Sea. Not known from the Red Sea nor Persian Gulf.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 23.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4319); max. published weight: 2.7 kg (Ref. 4787)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16-17; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Similar to E. maculatus but fewer spots and posterior ones elongated (Ref. 48635); Characterized by greyish brown color with pale blotches; head with widely scattered brown spots; diagonally elongated spots on body becoming more numerous posteriorly; dorsal fin with large dark blotches; ctenoid scales on body except cycloid on nape, thorax and lower abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.8-3.3 in SL; slightly rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins 1.8-2.3 in head length (Ref. 90102); head length 2.4-2.6 times in SL; flat to slightly convex interorbital area, convex dorsal head profile; preopercle angle with enlarged serrae and a shallow in indentation just above the angle; straight or slightly convex upper edge of operculum; posterior nostril not much larger than anterior nostril; maxilla reaches to or past vertical at rear edge of eye, ventral edge with blunt hook like process distally in fish larger than 35 cm SL; 2 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 89707).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabit coral reefs or rocky areas and occasionally on sandy bottom. Feed mainly on crustaceans, especially crabs and stomatopods, rarely on small fishes, squids, and pelecypod flesh. Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166). Solitary (Ref 90102).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 25.6 - 29, mean 28.2 (based on 716 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.01134 - 0.03351), b=3.14 (3.00 - 3.28), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.62 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.