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Epinephelus heniochus  Fowler, 1904

Bridled grouper
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Epinephelus heniochus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus heniochus (Bridled grouper)
Epinephelus heniochus
Picture by CSIRO

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Fowler.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 40 - 235 m (Ref. 5222).   Tropical; 35°N - 20°S, 94°E - 155°E (Ref. 5222)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Pacific: the Philippines to the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819) and northern Australia.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4787)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14-15; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: body depth contained 2.7-3.2 times in SL; HL 2.2-2.4 times in SL; slightly convex interorbital area, distinctly convex dorsal head profile; preopercle angular, with 2-4 large spines at the angle; upper edge of operculum approximately straight; posterior nostril about twice as large as anterior nostril; maxilla usually reaches to or slightly past a vertical at rear edge of eye; step-like extension on lower edge of maxilla in adults; well developed canines at from of jaws, especially in upper jaw; 2 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw; pyloric caeca 7 or 8 (Ref. 89707).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

The species seems to prefer soft (sedimentary) bottom, rather than rocky areas; most specimens have been taken on mud or silty sand bottoms. Nothing has been published on the biology of this species.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 108899)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
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Ecology
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Common names
Synonyms
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Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
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Length-weight
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Morphometrics
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Larvae
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Ciguatera
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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishes of Iran | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 19.7 - 28, mean 25.2 (based on 482 cells; Ref. 115970).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00545 - 0.02310), b=3.04 (2.88 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (45 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.