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Epinephelus chlorocephalus  (Valenciennes, 1830)

Tonga grouper
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Image of Epinephelus chlorocephalus (Tonga grouper)
Epinephelus chlorocephalus
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal.   Tropical; 20°S - 23°S, 177°W - 174°W (Ref. 5222)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Central Pacific: known only from Tonga.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.1 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4787)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 17; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: dorsal part of head and snout green; cheeks pale green; body greenish with 7-8 alternating stripes of greenish brown and yellow-orange; dorsal and anal fins greenish, spotted with reddish brown at base; paired fins light greenish without spots; caudal fin greenish with faint reddish bars; body depth 3.4 times in SL; head length 2.6 times in SL; pointed head; interorbital area flat; dorsal profile of head slightly convex; subangular preopercle;, 5 distinctly enlarged serrae at the angle; straight upper edge of operculum; maxilla not reaching past vertical at rear edge of eye; 2 rows of teeth in midlateral part of lower jaw; caudal fin rounded; ctenoid lateral body scales (Ref. 089707).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Nothing is known of its habitat and biology (Ref. 5222). Absence of additional specimens is puzzling. The only specimen was obtained from the natives of Tongatapu by J. Quoy and P. Gaimard during the expedition of J. Dumont d'Urville, 1826-1829.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: of no interest
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00563 - 0.02452), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .