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Epinephelus awoara  (Temminck & Schlegel, 1842)

Yellow grouper
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Epinephelus awoara   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus awoara (Yellow grouper)
Epinephelus awoara
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 50 m (Ref. 5222).   Tropical, preferred ?; 39°N - 12°N, 110°E - 143°E (Ref. 5222)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Northwest Pacific: Korea, Japan, Taiwan, China, Viet Nam, and islands in the South China Sea.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 16 - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9137)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15-16; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: head and body pale greyish brown dorsally, usually golden yellow ventrally; 4 broad dark bars on the dorsal part of the body, one on caudal peduncle and another often visible on nape; numerous small yellow spots on head and body; body and median fins with small greyish white spots; soft dorsal and caudal fins and sometimes the anal fin, with prominent yellow margin; dusky yellow paired fins; yellow mustache in the maxillary groove; body depth 2.7-3.3 times in SL; head length 2.3-2.6 times in SL; convex interorbital area; strongly convex dorsal head profile; subangular preopercle, 2-5 strong spines at the angle; upper edge of operculum straight, uppermost spine rudimentary; maxilla reaches about to vertical at rear edge of eye; 2 rows of small, subequal teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw; caudal fin convex; lateral body scales distinctly ctenoid, with auxiliary scales in fish larger than 30 cm SL; pyloric caeca 12, in 3 bundles (Ref. 089707).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs in rocky areas as well as on sandy-mud bottoms. Juveniles are common in tide pools. In captivity, the species is aggressive, chasing and biting other species, especially members of its own species. Protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 5222). Artificial fertilization of eggs was done and the longest survival time for the larvae was 15 days (Ref. 6780). In Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00550 - 0.02289), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.55 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fecundity = 24,329).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.