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Tetronarce cowleyi  Ebert, Haas & de Carvalho, 2015

Cowley’s torpedo ray
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Tetronarce cowleyi
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes (Electric rays) > Torpedinidae (Electric rays)
Etymology: cowleyi: The species is named after Paul Cowley, South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity, in recognition of his contributions to the study of fishes in southern Africa (Ref. 100734).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 110 - 457 m (Ref. 100734).   Temperate

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Atlantic Ocean: around southern Africa, from Walvis Bay, Namibia to Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape, South Africa (Ref. 100734).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 101 - ? cm
Max length : 68.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 100734); 113.3 cm TL (female)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Diagnosis: This medium-sized torpedo ray species has a uniform shiny black to dark gray live dorsal color, and is distinguished from its most similar congeners Tetronarce nobiliana and T. puelcha by the following combination of characters: shorter spiracular length, 1.5-1.6% of total length vs. 2.6-2.8% in T. nobiliana and 2.4-3.1% in T. puelcha; a proportionally greater head length as measured between snout margin and fifth gill openings, 30.5-31.2% of total length vs. 24.7-25.8% in T. nobiliana and 26.8% in adult male T. puelcha; and a proportionally greater preoral snout length, 8.9-9.3% of total length vs. 7.4-7.6% in T. nobiliana and 6.5-8.4% in T. puelcha (Ref. 100734). It is further distinguished from T. nobiliana by its more circular anterior disc shape vs. relatively straight; fewer tooth rows, 32/28 vs. 38/38 in T. nobiliana from the North Sea and up to 53/52 in T. nobiliana from the Mediterranean; greater mouth width, 1.5-1.7 times as great as interorbital width vs. 0.5-0.6 times interorbital width; smaller distance between second dorsal and caudal fins, 3.5-4.9% vs. 6.6-6.8%; and greater clasper length in mature individuals, extending nearly to lower caudal fin origin vs. clasper extends only two-thirds the distance between second dorsal and caudal fins (Ref. 100734).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

This species is mostly found along the outer continental shelf and upper slope near the bottom, but also well off it and at bottom depths of 110-457 m (Ref. 100734). Females mature by at least 100.5 cm total length and males at about 58.2 cm total length (Ref. 100734). Neonates reported to have been collected during pelagic plankton tows on the edge of the outer continental shelf southwest of Cape Town (Ref. 100734). The limited capture of this electric ray in bottom trawls is suspected to be not indicative of its abundance in the area, but rather by its ability to move well off the bottom while foraging for fish and other large prey; diet consists mainly of large bottom and pelagic bony fishes and small sharks (Ref. 100734).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Carvalho, Marcelo | Collaborators

Ebert, D.A., D.L. Haas and M.R. De Carvalho, 2015. Tetronarce cowleyi, sp. nov., a new species of electric ray from southern Africa (Chondrichthyes: Torpediniformes: Torpedinidae). Zootaxa 3936(2):237-250. (Ref. 100734)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 108899)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries:
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki |

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
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Ecology
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Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
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References
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Aquaculture profile
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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishes of Iran | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5002   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01622 (0.00770 - 0.03415), b=2.94 (2.75 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (72 of 100) .