Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Characiformes
(Characins) > Crenuchidae
(South American darters) > Characidiinae
Etymology: Characidium: Diminutive of Charax, -akos = a fish without identification (Ref. 45335); litorale: From the Latin litoralis, meaning of seashore, in allusion to the geographic distribution in coastal drainages located between the Serra do Mar and the Atlantic Ocean. Used in adjectival form to agree with the diminutive neutral form of the generic name.
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical, preferred ?
South America: Rio São João, Rio Macaé , and Rio Imbé drainages in Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 4.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 96085)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Vertebrae: 34 - 36. Characidium litorale is distinguished from other congeners by the combination of the following characters: complete lateral line (vs. incomplete in C. interruptum, C. laterale, and C. rachovii); greater body depth at dorsal-fin origin 20.9-24.6% SL (vs. 9.3-15.8% SL in C. longum, 13.7-17.2% SL in C. pteroides, 14.2-18.9% SL in C. steindachneri); fewer lateral line scales 34-36 (vs. 38-40 in C. longum, and 37-40 in C. steindachneri); and fewer scales in the series between the anus and anal-fin origin 4-5 (vs. 8-10 in C. longum, and 6-8 in C. steindachneri); absence of a large blotch on caudal peduncle (vs. presence in C. bimaculatum); and absence of bands in distal part of anal fin (vs. presence in C. heinianum); and deeper caudal peduncle depth 10.6-12.1% SL (vs. 6.7-10.0% SL in C. heinianum). C. litorale of size ranges 2.65-3.27 cm SL differs from C. xanthopterum of size ranges 2.24-3.15 cm SL by having lower body depth (20.9-24.2% SL vs. 24.2-27.6% SL in C. xanthopterum), and from C. zebra of size ranges 2.46-3.22 cm SL by having fewer scales around caudal peduncle (12 vs. 14 in C. zebra), greater body depth at dorsal-fin (20.9-24.6% SL vs. 16.1-19.6% SL in C. zebra) and anal-fin origin (15.6-18.1% SL vs. 12.3-14.6% SL in C. zebra), deeper caudal peduncle (depth 10.6-12.1% SL vs. 8.9-10.6% SL in C. zebra), and by the shape of the longitudinal midlateral stripe (thin and restricted to the posterior half of the body versus wide and extending throughout the flank in C. zebra). Other conspicuous non-unique external characters useful in distinguishing C. litorale include the following: isthmus completely covered with scales; basicaudal spot well defined and isolated by a bright area; and markedly reticulated pigmentation pattern at upper half of body. There are slight differences in morphology among populations from the São João, Macaé and Imbé drainages: specimens from Rio São João frequently possess more secondary bars, and individuals from the Rio Macaé usually have a lower body depth. The secondary bars may be less evident or lacking in few specimens (13.6%) from Rio Imbé (Ref. 96085).
Inhabits streams and rivers, mainly over sandy bottom at medium-slow water flow. Occasionally occurs associated with grassy marginal vegetation. The type locality is a stretch of the Córrego Aldeia Velha, that runs through a deforested area (pasture), and is characterized by clear waters with moderate flow, less than 50 cm depth, and substratum composed predominately of sand, clay, and gravel (Ref. 96085).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Leitão, R.P. and P.A. Buckup, 2014. A new species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from coastal basins of Serra do Mar, southeastern Brazil. Copeia 2014(1):14-22. (Ref. 96085)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .