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Epinephelus hexagonatus  (Forster, 1801)

Starspotted grouper
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Image of Epinephelus hexagonatus (Starspotted grouper)
Epinephelus hexagonatus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 4319), usually 6 - ? m (Ref. 37816).   Tropical; 33°N - 31°S, 30°E - 130°W (Ref. 5222)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: none have been taken on the African coast, except for the specimen recorded by Randall and Heemstra 1991(Ref. 4787) from Kenyan coast north of Kilifi Creek. It is an insular species found in most tropical Indo-Pacific islands. Absent in the Red Sea and Persian Gulf.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 19.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 27.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48600)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15-17; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Small but conspicuous triangular white spots on the corners of the brown hexagons of the vertical fins and all of the body except the belly; four to six dark blotches along the dorsal fin base (Ref. 37816); further characterized by having ctenoid scales on body except cycloid anterodorsally above lateral line, on thorax and abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.8-3.5 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins 1.8-2.1 in head length (Ref. 90102); HL 2.5-2.6 times in SL; flat interorbital area, convex dorsal head profile; rounded preopercle, slightly enlarged ventral serrae; upper edge of operculum convex; posterior and anterior nostrils subequal; maxilla reaches to or past vertical at rear edge of eye; smoothly curved ventral edge of maxilla; 3-5 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 89707).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Common in exposed outer-reef areas in relatively shallow water. Well-camouflaged grouper, solitary (Ref 37816). Feeds mainly on fishes and crustaceans (stomatopods and brachyuran crabs) (Ref. 5222).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 108899)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 25.1 - 29.3, mean 28.4 (based on 2803 cells; Ref. 115970).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00531 - 0.01567), b=3.00 (2.86 - 3.14), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.67 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.9).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.