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Epinephelus undulosus  (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824)

Wavy-lined grouper
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Epinephelus undulosus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus undulosus (Wavy-lined grouper)
Epinephelus undulosus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 24 - 90 m (Ref. 11441).   Tropical; 27°N - 13°S, 39°E - 158°E (Ref. 5222)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Oman to Kenya, including Laccadive Islands, India, Sri Lanka, and the Andaman Islands. Not reported in the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Known also from Indonesia, Sarawak of Malaysia, New Guinea, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and the Philippines.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 41 - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 89707); common length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 6.4 kg (Ref. 5222)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 17-19; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: head, body and fins purplish grey to brownish grey; head with brown to golden brown dots and wavy longitudinal lines of the same colour on the dorsal part of the body (lines faint of absent on large specimens); narrowly blackish margin of spinous dorsal fin; body depth contained 2.7-3.1 times in SL; head length 2.5-2.7 times in SL; convex interorbital area; angular preopercle, notch above angle and enlarged serrae at angle; straight or slightly concave upper edge of operculum; subequal posterior and anterior nostrils or slightly larger posterior nostril; maxilla reaches to vertical at rear edge of eye; ventral edge of maxilla in adults with prominent knob or hook-like process; 2 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 89707).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Lives on muddy open substrate, seeking refuge in holes in the mud or with solid structures, shipwrecks or debris. A flighty species (Ref; 48635). Also found on banks (Ref. 5222). Feeds on small fishes and crustaceans (stomatopods), shrimps, and pelagic tunicates (Thalia and Pyrosoma sp.) (Ref. 5222). Solitary (Ref 90102).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 23.9 - 28.6, mean 27.5 (based on 499 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00692 (0.00410 - 0.01168), b=2.93 (2.79 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.51 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.