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Epinephelus polystigma  (Bleeker, 1853)

White-dotted grouper
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Image of Epinephelus polystigma (White-dotted grouper)
Epinephelus polystigma
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; brackish; demersal.   Tropical; 20°N - 16°S, 99°E - 164°E (Ref. 5222)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Asia and Oceania: Andaman Is., Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, New Ireland, Australia and the Solomon Islands.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 48.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 89707)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15-16; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: dark brown to nearly blackish color; fins with small white to yellowish-white dots; weakly ctenoid scales on body except cycloid anteriorly above lateral line, on thorax and abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.6-3.0 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins, 1.9-2.2 in head length (Ref. 90102); head length 2.3-2.7 times in SL; flat interorbital area; short snout, length subequal to eye diameter; preorbital depth less than greatest width of upper lip; rounded preopercle, finely serrate, serrae at angle slightly enlarged; upper edge of operculum mostly enlarged; funnel-shaped anterior nostrils, rear margin expanded as a flap reaching posterior nostril; posterior nostril diameter 2-4 times larger than anterior nostril diameter; maxilla reaches past vertical at rear edge of eye, lower edge with rounded step at front of widest part; 2-3 rows of small subequal teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw; presence of 2 short stout canines at front of both jaws; pyloric caeca 8 (Ref. 89707).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in estuaries (Ref. 75154). Usual habitat seems to be mangrove areas (Ref. 5222). Benthic (Ref. 75154). Forms large aggregations in shallow waters of river mouths and brackish mangrove regions throughout the year, prior to new moon (Ref. 89707). A 19 cm SL female specimen from the Philippines was found ripe (Ref. 5222).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

CITES (Ref. 108899)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishes of Iran | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00545 - 0.02310), b=3.04 (2.88 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.