Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 30 m (Ref. 48636). Tropical, preferred ?; 27°N - 30°S, 100°E - 155°E (Ref. 5222)
Western Pacific: Thailand, Hong Kong, and Taiwan to Australia (Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland and New South Wales) and eastward to the Solomon and Mariana Islands, including Indonesia, Singapore, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, and Palau. Adults often misidentified as Epinephelus macrospilos.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 29 - ? cm
Max length : 49.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222)
soft rays: 8. Head profile long and flat; spots more widely spaced than the other two at a given size, becoming more numerous and widely spaced with growth (Ref. 37816). Closely resembles E. howlandi and E. macrospilos, but has more widely spaced spots on a light grayish-green to brown background, a longer flatter head profile, and more lateral line scales (Ref. 37816); further characterized by having ctenoid scales on body except cycloid scales anterodorsally and ventrally; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.9-3.2 in SL; rounded caudal fin; short pelvic fins, 1.8-2.3 in head length (Ref. 90102).
Common in shallow silty reefs, sometimes in estuarine areas. The ovary was well developed in an examined fish of 30 cm SL. Solitary or in small groups (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .