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Cichla nigromaculata  Jardine & Schomburgk, 1843

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Cichla nigromaculata
Picture by Kullander, S.O.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Cichlidae (Cichlids) > Cichlinae
Etymology: Cichla: Greek, kichle = wrasse (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; benthopelagic.   Tropical, preferred ?

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

South America: Upper Orinoco and Casiquiare tributaries and the middle Rio Negro.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 26.3 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57716)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Diagnosis: Distinguished from its congeners except C. intermedia, C. ocellaris, C. melaniae, and C. piquiti by the presence of bars 1a and 2a; similar to ocellaris in possessing a dark blotch dorsally in bar 3. Differs from piquiti in lower scale count (E1 row scales 75-84, vs. 83-104), and in having bars relatively narrow and short instead of uniformly wide across the side and reaching to the lower abdominal side. Differs from melaniae by the presence of prominent dark blotch dorsally in bar 3, and absence of numerous small light spots on side and from intermedia by lower scale count (E1 row scales 75-85 vs. 96-108), absence of horizontal lateral band, and vertical bars most prominent on dorsum rather than along midaxis. It is different from ocellaris in possession of small black spots on dorsal side, discontinuous lateral line (vs. usually continuous); more scales (E1 scales 75-84 vs. 67-82); narrower caudal peduncle (depth 10.3-11.4 %SL vs. 11.9-13.2 %SL in specimens over 100 mm SL); vertical bars 1-3 wide dorsally, tapering to a point below middle of side (vs. usually relatively narrow and about equally wide from dorsum to ventral end); absence of postorbital markings (vs. presence); and presence of distinct occipital bar (vs. absent or indistinct) (Ref. 57716).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Kullander, Sven O. | Collaborators

Kullander, S.O. and E.J.G. Ferreira, 2006. A review of the South American cichlid genus Cichla, with descriptions of nine new species. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 17(4):289-398. (Ref. 57716)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki |

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FAO areas
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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00489 - 0.02574), b=3.06 (2.87 - 3.25), based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .