Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Osphronemidae
(Gouramies) > Macropodusinae
Etymology: Betta: Siamese local name of the fish "ikan bettah"; gladiator: From the Latin gladiator, meaning warrior or fighter, alluding to the aggressive behaviour of the species.
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 4.2 - 4.8. Tropical, preferred ?
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri
Asia: Maliau basin in Sabah, Malaysia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56613)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 27 - 30;
Vertebrae: 33 - 34. Absence of anal-fin base sheath scales; absence of dorsal-fin spine; body yellowish brown, opercle bluish; caudal fin plain brown; vertebrae 33-34; anal-fin rays 28-31 (mode 30); dorsal-fin rays 7-9 (mode 8); pectoral-fin rays 16-17 (mode 17); subdorsal scales 5-6 1/2 (mode 6); lateral scales 34-36 (mode 35); predorsal scales 24-27 (mode 26); predorsal length 68.0-72.8% SL; head length 28.5-31.3% SL; length of anal-fin base 48.1-52.8% SL; length of dorsal-fin base 7.3-11.4% SL; lower jaw length 28.3-38.3% HL (Ref. 56613).
This is an aggressive and territorial species which inhabits heath forest with acidic water. Single adults stay about one meter apart, usually together with a small number of juveniles. Individuals kept in captivity continuously fight and have to be kept separately, otherwise they would have killed each other (Ref. 56613).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Tan, H.H. and P.K.L. Ng, 2005. The fighting fishes (Teleostei: Osphronemidae: Genus Betta) of Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei. Raffles Bull. Zool. Supplement (13):43-99. (Ref. 56613)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
CountriesFAO areasEcosystemsOccurrencesIntroductionsStocksEcologyDietFood itemsFood consumptionRation
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .