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Chlorurus microrhinos  (Bleeker, 1854)

Steephead parrots
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Chlorurus microrhinos   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Chlorurus microrhinos (Steephead parrots)
Chlorurus microrhinos
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Scaridae (Parrotfishes) > Scarinae
Etymology: Chlorurus: Greek, chloros = green + Greek oura = tail (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 90102), usually 1 - 15 m (Ref. 89972).   Tropical; 31°N - 35°S, 105°E - 124°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Pacific Ocean: Bali and the Philippines to the Line and Pitcairn islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Rottnest Island, Lord Howe Island and Rapa Island (Ref. 37816). The species complex comprise of Chlorurus gibbus in the Red Sea, Chlorurus strongylocephalus in the Indian Ocean and Chlorurus microrhinos in the west-central Pacific.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334); common length : 49.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37816); common length :40 cm SL (female); max. published weight: 5.4 kg (Ref. 37816)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 9. Juveniles below about 8 cm are black with several horizontal white streaks. Larger ones up to about 20 cm uniformly dark, greenish brown, slowly becoming blue with age. Blue streak and patch extending behind the corner of the mouth of large males often quite brilliant. Uniformly yellowish-tan individuals rare. Caudal fin lunate in large terminal males. Scale rows on cheek 3. Median predorsal scales 3-4 (Ref. 37816). Males develop large hump on head and appear blunt-headed (Ref. 48636).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs in lagoon and seaward reefs. Juveniles generally solitary; large adults often school together. Feeds on benthic algae (Ref. 89972).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Westneat, Mark | Collaborators

Parenti, P. and J.E. Randall, 2000. An annotated checklist of the species of the labroid fish families Labridae and Scaridae. Ichthyol. Bull. J.L.B. Smith Inst. Ichthyol. (68):1-97. (Ref. 35918)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)




Human uses

FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.8 - 29.3, mean 28.4 (based on 1923 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.01086 - 0.02537), b=3.03 (2.91 - 3.15), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=14; k=0.22).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .