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Epinephelus rivulatus  (Valenciennes, 1830)

Halfmoon grouper
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Epinephelus rivulatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus rivulatus (Halfmoon grouper)
Epinephelus rivulatus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 150 m (Ref. 9710).   Subtropical; 36°N - 36°S, 23°E - 175°E (Ref. 5222)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: East Africa to the western Pacific, southward into temperate waters of South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Not known from the Red Sea or Persian Gulf.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102); max. published weight: 1.4 kg (Ref. 5222)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16-18; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Characterized by red-brown head; body mottled pale-brown color; 5-6 irregular dark brown bars on body; caudal fin dark brown with pale speckling; body scales ctenoid except cycloid anterodorsally above lateral line, on nape, thorax and abdomen; body with auxiliary scales only anterodorsally behind zone of small cycloid scales; greatest depth of body; 2.7-3.2 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins, 1.9-2.4 in head length (Ref. 90102); body depth contained 2.7-3.2 times in SL; head length 2.3-2.6 times in SL; head length 2.3-2.6 times in SL; flat to slightly convex interorbital area, dorsal head profile convex; snout length 4.0-5.0 in HL; angular preopercle, with enlarged serrae at angle; straight upper edge of operculum, almost horizontal; posterior and anterior nostril subequal in size; maxilla reaches to or past vertical at rear edge of eye, ventral edge with slight step at distal expansion; 2-3 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw; pyloric caeca (Ref. 89707).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Sedentary reef-associated species (Ref. 89707). Occurs on coral reefs, areas with rocky substrata, algal flats and seagrass beds. Feeds on fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 30573). A protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367). Forms spawning aggregations (Ref. 55367). Solitary (Ref 90102).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

A monandric species (Ref. 55367). Length at sex change = 75.6 cm TL (Ref. 55367).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 108899)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 21.5 - 28.8, mean 27.2 (based on 1542 cells; Ref. 115970).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00788 - 0.01920), b=3.03 (2.90 - 3.16), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.54 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.