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Inimicus didactylus  (Pallas, 1769)

Bearded ghoul
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Inimicus didactylus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Inimicus didactylus (Bearded ghoul)
Inimicus didactylus
Picture by Petrinos, C.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Scorpaeniformes (Scorpionfishes and flatheads) > Synanceiidae (Stonefishes) > Choridactylinae
Etymology: Inimicus: Latin, inimicus = enemy (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 80 m (Ref. 37816).   Tropical, preferred ?; 25°N - 21°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Thailand to Vanuatu, north to the Ryukyu Islands (Ref. 559) and southeast China, south to Australia.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 15 - 17; Dorsal soft rays (total): 7-9; Anal spines: 2; Anal soft rays: 10 - 12. Body colors highly variable and best identified by the patterns on the fins (Ref. 48635). Lower 2 pectoral rays are entirely free and used as "walking" legs and the inner face of the fin is brightly colored (Ref. 37816).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found on open sandy or silty substrates of lagoon and seaward reefs. Often buries itself and easily overlooked. Uses pectoral fins to startle predators and shows color during courtship (Ref. 48635). Feeds on small fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 9710). The venom of this fish can be deadly to man. Its ability to camouflage itself by living half-buried presents a real danger. Solitary on sand and mud bottoms (Ref 90102).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 1602)




Human uses

Aquarium: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishes of Iran | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5010   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.00773 - 0.04918), b=2.97 (2.75 - 3.19), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.66 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .