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Encrasicholina heteroloba  (Rüppell, 1837)

Shorthead anchovy
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Encrasicholina heteroloba
Picture by Hermosa, Jr., G.V.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Engraulidae (Anchovies) > Engraulinae
Etymology: Encrasicholina: Greek, egkrasicholos, -os, -on = mixed with spleen.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 20 - 50 m (Ref. 28016).   Tropical, preferred ?; 32°N - 25°S, 30°E - 177°W (Ref. 189)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to northern Madagascar and the Bay of Bengal; southern Japan and northern coast of Australia to the Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 5 - 6.7 cm
Max length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 7.5 cm NG male/unsexed; (Ref. 27550)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 14 - 16. Belly rounded with 4 to 6 sharp needle-like pre-pelvic scutes. Maxilla tip pointed, projecting beyond second supra-maxilla and reaching to sub-operculum. Isthmus short, preceded by a small bony plate on urohyal between branchial membranes. Unbranched dorsal and anal fin rays only. Anal fin short. In life, a distinct blue upper edge to its lateral stripe and a dull silver or grey band on flank, the back beige.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

A schooling species found inshore, but also inhabits deep bays under oceanic influence. Rarely enter mangrove waters (Ref. 43081). Probably feed mainly on planktonic crustaceans (e.g., copepods, Ref. 8591). Eggs are oval, without a knob at one end. Eggs occur intermittently in the lower reaches of mangrove waters (Ref. 43081). Utilized mostly for bait, but also for human consumption as dried fish or fermented sauce (Ref. 9987).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00550 (0.00461 - 0.00655), b=3.16 (3.11 - 3.21), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.80-4.09; tm=0.36-0.98).
Prior r = 1.01, 2 SD range = 0.47 - 2.19, log(r) = 0.01, SD log(r) = 0.39, Based on: 10 K, 3 tgen, 2 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.