Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 5.0 - ?. Tropical; 22°C - 24°C (Ref. 12468), preferred ?
Africa: most of the great sahélo-soudanian basins (Senegal, Gambie, Niger, Volta, Ouémé and Chad). Also known from the White Nile (Ref. 3203).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 11.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57961)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 24 - 30. LS/D 2.9-4.3;LS/PD 10.8-15.5. Pectoral fin longer or at least as long as head. Globular swelling on chin reduced. Base of dorsal fin 0.51-0.78 x of the anal fin base. Generally uniformly silver color but may sometimes be irregularly mottled on the sides.
Inhabits fringing vegetation in the Sudd and migrates onto the floodplain to spawn. Bottom feeding insectivore (Ref. 28714). Possesses electro receptors over the entire head, the dorsal and ventral regions of the body, but absent from the side and the caudal peduncle where the electric organ is located (Ref. 10011). Also sensitive to sound frequencies (Ref. 10831).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bigorne, R., 1990. Mormyridae. p. 122-184. In C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux saumâtres d'Afrique de l'Ouest. tome 1. Faune Trop. 28. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, and ORSTOM, Paris. (Ref. 2915)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00674 - 0.02047), b=2.83 (2.68 - 2.98), based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming Fec < 5,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .