Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.5 - 7.0; dH range: ? - 10; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 22°C - 25°C (Ref. 13371), preferred ?; 16°N - 4°S
Asia: Mekong and Chao Phraya basins, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30857); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4835)
soft rays: 5. Distinguished from other species of the genus in having a red dorsal fin with a black blotch at the tip, red pectoral, pelvic and anal fins, red caudal fin with white margin and a black submarginal stripe along each lobe, and 8 scale rows between dorsal-fin origin and lateral line (Ref. 27732). Large individuals silvery or golden yellow in life with its dorsal fin red and caudal fin orange or blood-red (Ref. 2091).
Found in rivers, streams, canals and ditches (Ref. 12693). Occurs in medium to large-sized rivers and enters flooded fields (Ref. 12975). In east Kalimantan, Indonesia a temperature range of 20.4-33.7°C was recorded for this species (Ref. 6129). Largely herbivorous, consuming aquatic macrophytes and submerged land plants, as well as filamentous algae and occasionally insects (Ref. 12693). Also feeds on small fishes (Ref. 12693), worms and crustaceans (Ref. 7020). Usually marketed fresh (Ref. 12693).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kottelat, M., A.J. Whitten, S.N. Kartikasari and S. Wirjoatmodjo, 1993. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong. 221 p. (Ref. 7050)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: commercial; bait: occasionally
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00610 - 0.02985), b=3.00 (2.82 - 3.18), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Assuming tm=1; Fec=8,000-16,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .