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Upeneus sulphureus  Cuvier, 1829

Sulphur goatfish
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Upeneus sulphureus
Picture by Allen, G.R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Mullidae (Goatfishes)
Etymology: Upeneus: Greek, ypene, -es = upper lip (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Cuvier.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - 90 m (Ref. 12260), usually 20 - 60 m (Ref. 114285).   Tropical; 36°N - 28°S, 33°E - 180°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: East Africa to southeast Asia, north to China, south to northern Australia and Fiji (Ref. 12743).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 9.9, range 9 - 10.3 cm
Max length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 8; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9; Anal spines: 1; Anal soft rays: 7. This species is distinguished by the following characters: D VIII,9; pectoral fins 15-16; gill rakers 7-8 + 19-21 = 27-28; lateral line scales 34-37; body depth at first dorsal-fin origin 29-33% SL and at anus 25-27% SL; caudal-peduncle depth 11-12% SL; maximum head depth 23-25% SL; head depth through eye 18-20% SL; head length 29-30%SL; orbit length 7.4-8.7% SL; upper jaw length 11-13% SL; barbel length 17-21% SL; caudal-fin length 27-30% SL; anal-fin height 16-18% SL; pelvic-fin length 20-22% SL; pectoral-fin length 24-26% SL; first dorsal-fin height 23-26% SL; second dorsal-fin height 17-18% SL; no bars on caudal-fin lobes; yellowish lower lobe base, grey on upper lobe (some of the caudal-fin lobe pigmentation retained when preserved, including inner margin of fin lobes); 2 yellow body stripes, 1 mid-lateral body from operculum to caudal-fin base (both faintly retained in preserved fish); white barbels; body dorsally pale brown and ventrally white (pale brown with some reddish or darker brown area at mid-body in preserved fish) (Ref. 82903).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in coastal waters, entering estuaries (Ref. 30573). Sandy-muddy bottom (Ref. 43239). Forms schools (Ref. 5213). Has appearance of sillaginids when schooling (Ref. 48636).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Randall, John E. | Collaborators

Kumaran, M. and J.E. Randall, 1984. Mullidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51. Vol. 3. (Ref. 3470)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishes of Iran | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.3 - 29.1, mean 28 (based on 1552 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00898 - 0.01339), b=3.10 (3.06 - 3.14), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.1   ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.5-1.3; tmax=4.6).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.