Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Paralichthyidae
Etymology: Citharichthys: Latin, cithara = lire like instrument + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; depth range 0 - 75 m (Ref. 5217). Tropical; 26°C - 29°C (Ref. 36880), preferred ?; 41°N - 33°S
Western Atlantic: New Jersey, USA to the Antilles and Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Occurs in shallow muddy bottoms from the coastline to 75 m depth; also in brackish estuaries and hypersaline lagoons (Ref. 5217). Inhabit mainly coastal waters and tidelands, but abundant in waters very near the sea to a few meters elevation with wholly freshwater ichthyofauna (Ref. 36880). Feeds mainly on zooplankton and zoobenthos (Ref. 13196). Taken with beach nets (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Oviparous (Ref. 101737). Females produce numerous eggs in multiple spawnings during a prolonged spawning period (Ref. 101737).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00631 (0.00512 - 0.00778), b=3.15 (3.10 - 3.20), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.58 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .