Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Centropomidae
Etymology: Centropomus: Greek, kentron = sting + Greek, poma, -atos = cover, operculum (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 22 m (Ref. 26912). Tropical; 25°C - 31°C (Ref. 36880), preferred 27°C (Ref. 107945); 30°N - 35°S, 98°W - 33°W
Western Atlantic: southern Florida (USA), southeastern coast of the Gulf of Mexico, most of the Antilles and Caribbean coast of Central and South America extending southward to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; also North Carolina and Texas, USA (Ref. 7251).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 42 - ? cm
Max length : 140 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3713); max. published weight: 24.3 kg (Ref. 4699); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 12193)
Adults inhabit coastal waters, estuaries and lagoons, penetrating into freshwater; usually at depths less than 20 m (Ref. 3713). Feed on fishes (Gobiidae, Gerreidae, Engraulidae) and crustaceans (shrimps and crabs) (Ref. 35237). Mature individuals congregate at mouths of passes and rivers during the spawning season, May through September (Ref. 3713). Seasonal movements into freshwater occur but poorly understood (Ref. 3713). Marketed fresh (Ref. 5712). Valued game fish and an excellent food fish (Ref. 26938). The world record for hook and line is a 53-lb., 10 ounce fish caught at Parismina Ranch, Costa Rica (Ref. 13442).
Also Ref. 103751.
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00563 - 0.01021), b=3.03 (2.96 - 3.10), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3-0.49; tm=4; tmax=7; Fec=3 million).
Prior r = 0.7, 2 SD range = 0.46 - 1.08, log(r) = -0.36, SD log(r) = 0.21, Based on: 2 M, 2 K, 3 tgen, 1 tmax, 2 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .