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Eleutheronema tetradactylum  (Shaw, 1804)

Fourfinger threadfin
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Eleutheronema tetradactylum   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Fourfinger threadfin)
Eleutheronema tetradactylum
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Polynemidae (Threadfins)
Etymology: Eleutheronema: Greek, eleutheros = free + Greek, nema = filament (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 23 m (Ref. 6390).   Tropical, preferred 28°C (Ref. 107945); 32°N - 26°S, 47°E - 154°E (Ref. 57343)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf to Papua New Guinea and northern Australia. Replaced by Eleutheronema rhadinum (Jordan & Evermann, 1902), in East Asia (Japan, China, Viet Nam).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 29 - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3479); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3479); max. published weight: 145.0 kg (Ref. 4965)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-15; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 14 - 16. Pectoral filaments 4; fin membranes vivid yellow in life, except in large specimens, > ca 35 cm SL. Vomer with deciduous tooth plates on both sides, except in juveniles. Posterior part of maxilla deep, 3-4% of SL. Short tooth plate extension onto lateral surface of lower jaw. 7-9% SL (Ref. 41639).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults occur mainly over shallow muddy bottoms in coastal waters. Also enter rivers (Ref. 3479, 6390, 11230). Juveniles found in estuaries. During winter, adults ascend the rivers. They usually form loose schools, although larger fish are more often observed in pairs or singly (Ref. 6390). Feed on prawns and fish (largely members of Mugilidae, Engraulidae, and Sciaenidae) with occasional polychaetes. Frequency of crustaceans to fish in the diet varies seasonally. Larvae (7-30 mm TL) feed mainly on copepods and mysids but also take shrimps and prawn larvae (Ref. 57343). Juveniles (31-60 TL) feed on prawns shrimps and mysids (Ref. 57343). Protandrous hermaphrodites. Marketed fresh, frozen, and dried or salted.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

In Australia, fish are males at 24-47 cm FL, hermaphrodites at 25-46 cm FL and females at 28-72 cm FL. On the northeast Queensland coast, most blue threadfin are females by 45-50 cm FL. Hermaphroditic blue threadfin develop fom 1-2-year-old fish, and females first appear as 2-3-year-old individuals (Ref. 28736). Male fish probably commence sex reversal immediately after spawning (ie about April-May) and this condition may persist until after the next spawning period (Ref. 28736). The progression from hermaphrodites to females is complete by the following season. There is little information on the larvae, although nursery areas are known to be lower estuaries, tidal swamps and lagoons, and shallows along the foreshores (Williams 1997).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Motomura, H., Y. Iwatsuki, S. Kimura and T. Yoshino, 2002. Revision of the Indo-West Pacific polynemid fish genus Eleutheronema (Teleostei: Perciformes). Ichthyol. Res. 49(1):47-61. (Ref. 41639)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: commercial
FAO(Aquaculture: production; fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec=680,000; assuming tm>=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.