Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Esociformes
(Pikes and mudminnows) > Esocidae
Etymology: Esox: From Greek, isox and also related with the Celtic root, eog, ehawc = salmon (Ref. 45335); niger: niger meaning black (Ref. 10294). More on author: Lesueur.
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; demersal; pH range: ? - 22.0; non-migratory; depth range ? - 6 m (Ref. 39106). Temperate; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 2059), preferred ?; 46°N - 25°N
North America: Nova Scotia, Canada (introduced) to southern Florida, USA; Gulf coast west to Sabine Lake drainage in Louisiana, USA; Mississippi River basin north to Kentucky and Missouri, USA. Introduced to Lakes Ontario and Erie drainages and elsewhere.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 16 - ? cm
Max length : 99.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 41.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. published weight: 4.3 kg (Ref. 4699); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 12193)
soft rays: 11 - 13;
Vertebrae: 49 - 54. Body rather slender, somewhat compressed, deepest near middle. Head large, naked, and depressed above, profile slightly concave over snout; snout long, broad, and rounded; mouth large, nearly horizontal; lower jaw projecting; maxillary extending to, or slightly beyond anterior margin of pupil. Lateral teeth on lower jaw and vomer enlarged. Cheek and opercle fully scaled. Gill rakers on lateral and media surfaces of arches.
Pigmentation: Greenish above, sometimes very dark, venter pale; scales above with golden luster; laterally with light areas enclosed by dark chain-like markings; dark upper side interrupted by light vertical bars; suborbital bar almost vertical or with slight posterior slant; rays of dorsal, anal, pectorals, and pelvic fins with light interradial membranes, caudal fin base marbled with dark pigment, tips dusky; pupil of eye yellow.
Live in vegetated lakes, swamps, and backwaters and quiet pools of creeks and small to medium rivers (Ref. 26373). Also found in deep, cold water with little or no vegetation (Ref. 39109, 39108). Adults migrate to deeper water during winter (Ref. 39110, 39097, 39111) undertaking shoreward spawning migrations soon after spring ice disappears (Ref. 39109). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Juveniles tend to lie motionless near shore or burrow themselves in mud beneath debris (Ref. 39112). Larvae hide among vegetation (Ref. 39113). Oviparous, with pelagic eggs.
Crossman, E.J., 1996. Taxonomy and distribution. p. 1-11. In J.F. Craig (ed.) Pike biology and exploration. Chapman and Hall, London. 298 p. (Ref. 26373)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5157 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00235 - 0.00848), b=3.09 (2.93 - 3.25), based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.46 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=1-4; tmax=9; Fec=936).
Prior r = 0.54, 2 SD range = 0.3 - 0.96, log(r) = -0.62, SD log(r) = 0.29, Based on: 4 K, 2 tgen, 1 tmax, 2 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (58 of 100) .