Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Salmoniformes
(Salmons) > Salmonidae
(Salmonids) > Coregoninae
Etymology: Coregonus: Greek, kore = pupils of the eye + Greek, gonia = angle (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; anadromous (Ref. 51243). Polar, preferred ?; 71°N - 44°N, 5°W - 133°W
Arctic: Sweden and Finland to the extreme northeast of Siberia, in the western portion of the Bering Sea basin, and partly in the basin of the Sea of Okhotsk. In Alaska in the tributaries of the Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering seas (Ref. 5723). Additional populations in Poland and in the Alps (Ref. 683). Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna). Belongs to Coregonus clupeaformis complex (Ref. 27547).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 17 - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043); common length : 32.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. reported age: 14 years (Ref. 12193)
soft rays: 10 - 14;
Vertebrae: 58 - 63. Distinguished by the gill rakers that are longer than 20% of the interorbital width, 19 to 25 gill rakers (with modal counts of 22 or 23), and a pronounced hump behind the head in adults (Ref. 27547). Adipose fin well developed, often larger in males; axillary process present in pelvic fins (Ref. 27547). Dark brown to midnight blue above fading to silver on sides and wide beneath; no parr marks in young (Ref. 27547).
Inhabits coastal waters near shore (Ref. 5723), lower reaches of rivers with slow current, large lakes with tributaries, floodplain lakes, deltas and estuaries, brackish waters (Ref. 59043). Migrates up to more than 1,200 km inland for spawning (Ref. 5723). Overwinters near river mouths (Ref. 5723). There are non-migratory freshwater populations. Adults feed mostly on mollusks, crustaceans and chironomid larvae (Ref. 28219).
Upstream spawning migrations may be extensive but some populations seldom venture far upstream and still others may never go to sea at all (Ref. 593). Mature adults migrate upstream as early as June to spawn in October. It is assumed that the young hatch in late winter and spring, subsequently moving downstream, to return as mature adults 4 to 6 years later (Ref. 27547).
Kottelat, M., 1997. European freshwater fishes. Biologia 52, Suppl. 5:1-271. (Ref. 13696)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00550 (0.00331 - 0.00911), b=3.23 (3.09 - 3.37), based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=3-14; tmax=14; Fec=8,000).
Prior r = 0.41, 2 SD range = 0.22 - 0.77, log(r) = -0.89, SD log(r) = 0.31, Based on: 4 K, 17 tgen, 1 tmax, 2 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (64 of 100) .