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Ballerus sapa  (Pallas, 1814)

White-eye bream
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Ballerus sapa
Female picture by Otel, V.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic.   Temperate; 10°C - 25°C (Ref. 13614); 65°N - 45°N, 12°E - 69°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Europe and Asia: large rivers draining to Black, Azov, Caspian and Aral Seas. Introduced or native to Northern Dvina drainage (White Sea basin) where it is presently spreading from warmer upper reaches (Vychegda system) northward. Introduced in River Volkhov (a tributary of Lake Ladoga), in Rhine in 1995 and invasive in Vistula drainage, coming from Black Sea basin through Prypet-Bug canal (connecting Dniepr and Vistula drainages).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27368); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 556)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Differs from Ballerus ballerus by having small and inferior mouth, 47-54 scales on lateral line, and large eye, about equal to snout length (Ref. 59043).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs in fast flowing rivers. Eastern, brackish populations enter the lower reach of rivers for spawning (Ref. 1441). Inhabit large lowland rivers and estuaries. Active at night. Prey on benthic invertebrates. Semi-anadromous populations forage in large brackish-water habitats in estuaries around Black Sea. Spawn in large aggregations in fast-flowing water on gravel bottom or submerged vegetation. Usually rare and threatened due to water pollution (Ref. 59043).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Spawn in large aggregations in fast flowing water on gravel bottom or submerged vegetation. Semi-anadromous individuals begin spawning migration in November in Kura (Ref. 59043). Sticky eggs attach themselves to stones or plants (Ref. 9953).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 108899)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

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Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishes of Iran | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00584 - 0.01711), b=3.09 (2.95 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.0   ±0.2 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=4).
Prior r = 0.4, 2 SD range = 0.21 - 0.78, log(r) = -0.92, SD log(r) = 0.33, Based on: 2 K, 3 tgen, 1 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (63 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.