Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes
(Cods) > Lotidae
(Hakes and burbots)
Etymology: Enchelyopus: Greek, enchelys, = eel + Greek, pous = feet (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 20 - 650 m (Ref. 6144), usually 20 - 50 m. Temperate, preferred 6°C (Ref. 107945); 73°N - 20°N, 99°W - 32°E (Ref. 1371)
Northwest Atlantic: northern Gulf of Mexico to Newfoundland, western Greenland. Northeast Atlantic: coasts of Europe and the British Isles from the Barents Sea to the northern Bay of Biscay. One locality at Cape Blanc, Mauritania. Reported from Estonia (Ref. 33247). Caught very rarely in the Far East (Ref. 94563).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 25.0, range 15 - ? cm
Max length : 41.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 1371)
spines: 0. One barbel on chin, one on tip of snout, and one at each of the anterior nostril. First dorsal fin ray very elongate, followed by a row of small, fleshy filaments. Color varies from dusky to pale.
Sedentary bottom dwellers on muddy sand between patches of hard substrate, or on the soft, smooth ground of deep sinks on the continental slopes of both sides of the North Atlantic. Feed on flatfishes, amphipods, decapods, copepods, mysids, shrimps, isopods and other small crustaceans. Spawn in the Baltic Sea (Ref. 35388). Mixed with soups and other products hot-smoked (Ref. 1371).
Spawning has been recorded in waters less than 140 m deep. Fecundity ranges from 5,000 - 45,000.
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00224 - 0.00645), b=3.09 (2.94 - 3.24), based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.20-0.25; tm=3; tmax=9; Fec=5,000).
Prior r = 0.56, 2 SD range = 0.36 - 0.86, log(r) = -0.58, SD log(r) = 0.22, Based on: 2 M, 3 K, 2 tgen, 2 tmax, 2 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .