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Ethmalosa fimbriata  (Bowdich, 1825)

Bonga shad
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Ethmalosa fimbriata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Ethmalosa fimbriata (Bonga shad)
Ethmalosa fimbriata
Picture by Durand, J.-D.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Ethmalosa: Greek, ethmos, -ou = sieve, also the ethmoides bone + Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; catadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - ? m (Ref. 54436), usually 0 - 50 m (Ref. 54436).   Tropical; 25°N - 8°S, 17°W - 14°E (Ref. 54436)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Atlantic Ocean: Eastern central Atlantic Ocean from Dakhla in Western Sahara to Lobito Bay in Angola (Ref. 188, 81269, 81631). Reports from Cape Verde Islands are based on an erroneous type locality for Clupea fimbriata by Bowdich (1825) which was followed by later authors (Ref. 188).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 17.0  range ? - 18.5 cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5377); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16-19; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 19 - 23. Diagnosis: Ethmalosa fimbriata is distinguished from other clupeids by the presence of a median notch on the upper jaw, into which tip of lower jaw fits (Ref. 188, 81269). A faint dark spot behind gill cover, sometimes followed by others; dorsal fin tip black; caudal fin deep chrome yellow; golden tints on body (Ref. 188). Ethmalosa fimbriata resembles Sardinella aurita, Sardinella rouxi and especially Sardinella maderensis, but these are more slender, have a rounded upper jaw which is not notched and the upper gillrakers are not bent upward like an elbow (Ref. 188).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Ethmalosa fimbriata is found in coastal and estuarine regions, and sometimes also in lower courses of coastal rivers, even more than 300 km up rivers (Ref. 188, 81269, 81631). It feeds by filtering phytoplankton, chiefly diatoms (Ref. 188). It breeds throughout the year in waters of salinities 3.5-38 ppt, but with peaks in at least some areas; spawns in the sea, in estuaries and in rivers (Ref. 188).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Breeds all year in waters of salinities 3.5 to 38 ppt, but with peaks in at least some areas, becoming progressively later to south. Spawns in the sea, in estuaries and in rivers.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 108899)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: experimental
FAO(fisheries: production, species profile; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 20.2 - 27.9, mean 26.4 (based on 180 cells; Ref. 115970).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00819 - 0.01113), b=3.04 (3.00 - 3.08), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  2.5   ±0.20 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.25-0.36; tm=1; Fec=16,000).
Prior r = 0.66, 2 SD range = 0.33 - 1.31, log(r) = -0.42, SD log(r) = 0.34, Based on: 1 M, 6 K, 1 tgen, 4 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.