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Ethmidium maculatum  (Valenciennes, 1847)

Pacific menhaden
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Ethmidium maculatum   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Ethmidium maculatum (Pacific menhaden)
Ethmidium maculatum
Picture by Béarez, P.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Clupeinae
Etymology: Ethmidium: Diminutive of Greek, ethmos, -ou = sieve or ethmoides bone (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 188).   Tropical; 0° - 37°S, 86°W - 70°W (Ref. 188)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Southwest Pacific: Peru (Puerto Pizarro in Gulf of Guayaquil to Callao and Pisco Bay; presumably to border with Chile, but no records) and Chile (whole coast south to Talcahuano).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 25.4  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 26.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 12 - 15. Scutes present along back (before dorsal fin) as well as along belly. Upper jaw with median notch. Gill rakers fine and slender, about 130 to 150 in lower limb. Anal fin short, well behind last dorsal fin ray. Scales with pectinated hind border. A dark spot behind gill cover and up to 4 series of vertically oval spots along flank.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs in coastal waters, forming large schools. Feeds by filtering phytoplankton (diatoms) and zooplankton (especially copepods), but will also take small fishes and crustaceans. Breeds in spring (Chile), depositing its eggs in coastal waters on sand, to which the sticky eggs cling, the larvae rising and joining the surface plankton on hatching. Marketed fresh, frozen, or canned.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 108899)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
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Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
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References
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Aquaculture profile
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Heritability
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Stamps, Coins
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Ciguatera
Speed
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Gill area
Otoliths
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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishes of Iran | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.3 - 23, mean 20 (based on 12 cells; Ref. 115970).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00360 - 0.01458), b=3.11 (2.93 - 3.29), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  2.1   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Assuming tm=1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.