Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 59 m (Ref. 89891). Subtropical, preferred ?; 30°N - 18°N, 98°W - 73°W
Western Atlantic: northeastern Florida, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to Bay of Campeche.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 17 - 22 cm
Max length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 37.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3815)
Found primarily on sponge and coral bottoms. Feeds mainly on invertebrates (Ref. 9739).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.00735 - 0.03116), b=2.83 (2.66 - 3.00), based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Prior r = 0.63, 2 SD range = 0.41 - 0.98, log(r) = -0.46, SD log(r) = 0.22, Based on: 1 K, 1 tgen, 1 tmax, records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .